René Laennec, inventor of the stethoscope, first described bronchiectasis in 1819. It is characterized by the dilatation of bronchi with destruction of elastic and muscular components of their walls. Children often present with recurrent respiratory infections, productive cough, shortness of breath, and occasional hemoptysis. Physical examination findings include variable degrees of crackles or coarse rhonchi and clubbing. The common causes are infective: measles, tuberculosis, pertusis, severe pneumonia and HIV. The diagnosis is usually established using high-resolution CT scanning, which has a sensitivity and specificity of more than 90%. The key feature on scanning is an enlarged internal bronchial diameter with bronchi that appear larger than the accompanying artery, called the signet sign. Plain chest x-ray shows honeycomb appearance. Antibiotics and drainage of the secretion with chest physiotherapy are the mainstay of treatment.